Interview with Gosset cellar master, Odilon de Varine-Bohan

I had the pleasure to taste Gosset Champagne at an event in July in Kobe and to interview monsieur Odilon de Varine-Bohan. A very funny guy and really good Champange. The 15 ans de cave à minima brut was particularly good, with much complexity and intensity.

As always the interview is in English with Japanese subtitles!

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Pubblicato da su 18 agosto 2016 in French Wine, Interviews



Interview with Charles Philipponnat

A brief interview I made with Charles Philipponnat of Champagne Philipponnat. Subtitles (and a brief intro) in Japanese!


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Pubblicato da su 21 maggio 2016 in French Wine, Interviews


Taille chablis: an explanation

There is not much on the internet about this pruning system, but since it is known to come out on the WSET Unit 5 exam, I thought I could summarize some of the findings and try to explain it in the simplest way possible. Since I am no viticulturist take this post with a grain of salt.

First, the picture:


Another image (this has also labels):

My explanation:

Developed in Chablis, it is now mostly used in Champagne, particularly for Chardonnay (over 90% of the plantings).

Taille chablis is a bush vine system with a low stump from where the arms of the vine depart in a kind of fan shape. The first arm is called rachet and is a short spur with two buds which will not bear fruit in the current season, but will grow sprigs to use in the next one. The second is called lancement and is the development of last year rachet, a fruitful shoot bearing five buds. Then we have one to four older branches composed by two parts: a lower part called charpent (originally a lancement), made by wood more than one year old, and a higher fruitful part called prolongement with five buds. The following year the prologement will be more than one year old and become part of the charpent. The branches must be at least 30cm apart from each other.

When the charpent becomes too long, “invading” the space of the neighbouring plant, it is cut altogether.


  • It retains a good percentage of old wood, but at the same time the cordons are always relatively young. This allows on one hand the storage of reserve carbohydrates for the plant, on the other it guarantees more resistance to frost. Furthermore the constant replacement of the older wood may prevent infections and diseases to become established.
  • It is particularly good for Chardonnay: it is common for this variety to have the first two buds on the shoots unfruitful, thus the remaining three assures an adequate harvest.


  • It requires a certain degree of skill and experience for pruning.
  • More time consuming than guyot.


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Pubblicato da su 25 gennaio 2016 in In the vineyard


Louis Oudart, the French oenologist who invented Barolo. Or did he?

The “Oudart thesis”

There is a widespread belief that Barolo (by which term I mean the modern style, a red dry wine made from Nebbiolo grape in the surroundings of the town bearing the same name) has been invented by a French oenologist from Champagne, Louis Oudart. The story is reported by many reliable sites like Diwine Taste (here in English) or AIS Lombardia (the Lombard division of the Italian Sommelier Association) and even the recent “History of Wine in 100 Bottles” by Oz Clarke crowns Oudart as the inventor of this iconic wine (I still don’t understand how it is possible to write a book on wine history without any bibliography or references, but that’s another story).

This theory, taken as fact by many, was popularized by Manescalchi and Dalmasso’s “Storia della vite e del vino in Italia” (History of the vine and the wine in Italy), first published in 1937. I could not examine the original book or one of its later editions, but the story goes more or less like this.

Just before the half of the XIX century (around 1843) the famous Camillo Benso Count of Cavour, aiming to improve the quality of his wines, called Oudart to his estate in Grinzane. The count had a deep interest in agricolture and saw the technical improvement in this field as functional to support the kingdom’s finances. He was also Minister of Agriculture and Commerce for the Kingdom of Sardinia from 1850 to 1852.

Camillo Benso, count of Cavour

Camillo Benso, count of Cavour

Juliette Colbert of Maulévrier was one of his acquaintance: a noble woman born not far from Nantes, she was married to Carlo Ippolito Ernesto Tancredi Maria Falletti di Barolo (also known as Tancredi Falletti, marquis of Barolo). The two were a very good couple and though they never had any child they loved each other dearly. Juliette (Giulia Falletti di Barolo after marriage) also liked a good glass of wine, but the one produced in the Barolo area had too much residual sugar and was probably fizzy: Nebbiolo is a late ripening grape and the must fermentation probably stopped in winter to restart in spring, rarely coming to its end. Italy had still to achieve greatness in this field and its wines could not rival the french nectar that Juliette longed for.
She then consulted with his friend Camillo Benso asking for advice and the count introduced her to Louis Oudart, his french enologist. Louis Oudart examined the Falletti estates (in the area of Barolo) and corrected the wine making process by giving a number of advices, recommending to control the fermentation temperature in order to avoid residual sugar in the final wine. The Marquise was so satisfied by the result that she started promoting it passionately. Thanks to her the wine entered the court of Carlo Alberto of Savoy, king of Sardinia and prince of Piedmont, conquering the monarch and pushing him to acquire an estate in Verduno to start his own production.

When I first read this story I was very intrigued: as I wrote in the first post of this blog, many people wrongly perceive the history of italian wine as a long and uninterrupted line linking the Roman Empire with what we drink today. Too many Italians ignore the debit our wine has towards France. What would have been better to highlight this than crediting two French, Oudart and Juliette, for the invention of Barolo itself?
I started searching for sources and found a fantastic book from Anna Riccardi Candiani, “Louis Oudart e vini nobili del Piemonte” (Louis Oudart and the noble wines of Piedmont). My intention was too write a simple post re-telling the story and presenting some evidence, but the reality was a bit more complicated.

To tell the life of Louis Oudart the author has made deep researches, consulting archives and original documents from the civil registry of Reims, Bordeaux, Genova, the archives of the Royal Academy of Agricolture of Turin and others.
Louis Oudart was not just an enologist moved by academic interest, he was a wine merchant based in Genova leading the Maison Oudart et Bruché. In Burgundy we would call him a négociant, buying grapes or wine in the Ligurian and Piedmontese backcountry, bottling it and selling the final product. He had came to Italy with his cousin Jacques Philippe Bruché and had started his activity in Genova because of its healthy and flourishing french community. He was of course competent in his job and knew much about grape growing, but did not receive any special call by Cavour or Juliette Colbert.

At page 47 Candiani presents her shocking revelation (my translation):

Since many years the vox populi identifies Oudart as the inventor of Barolo wine. He would have been supposedly called by Giulia Colbert in Falletti, french like him, to work in the cellars of Barolo. Even though I made extensive research in archives and libraries, I did not find any document crediting a link between the enologist and Barolo. I am sorry to disappoint the supporters of this rumor and I must declare that the story has no basis.

The book is short (126 pages), but very informative and entertaining. If you can read italian I heartily recommend it.
Candiani tells us that Louis Oudart corresponded for some time with the Royal House and negotiated for the grapes produced in the estate of Pollenzo (personal resort of king Carlo Alberto). His 1844 Pollenzo featured in an international fair of London in 1862 with excellent results, but the parts could not reach an agreement over the price of grapes and the collaboration didn’t go further.
The enologist seems much more involved in the production of  Nebbiolo from Neive, today in the Barbaresco area, where he worked as an advisor for the count Camillo Bongiovanni di Castelborgo. The dry 1858 Nebbiolo from the maison Oudart and Bruché was particularly appreciated at the 1861 national exposition of Firenze and at the London International Exhibition of 1862: it had been made from grapes made into must and fermented until completion. An innovative technique, though it is difficult to establish if Louis Oudart has been the first to introduce it.

The “Staglieno thesis”

So if Oudart is not the inventor of Barolo, who is the father of this wine? One of the main suspects is Paolo Francesco Staglieno, a retired general who worked as enologist in the Pollenzo estate (the same with which Oudart had negotiated unsuccessfully the price of the grapes) and Grinzane, where he was called by Camillo Benso of Cavour in 1836 (and stayed until 1840). (1)

Supporters of the “Oudart thesis” often cite Staglieno by claiming that, although he was active in the same period in the area, his style of Barolo was “abboccato” (medium sweet), as opposed to the alleged dry Barolo of Oudart. This is much strange (and probably wrong) because Staglieno in his “Istruzione intorno al miglior modo di fare e conservare i vini in Piemonte” (Instructions on the best way to make and preserve wines in Piedmont, 1837) clearly states at page 68 that the best wine is made by fermenting the must to completion, without leaving any residual sugar. If he put, as it is very likely, his theories into practice and provided that he used 100% Nebbiolo, he could legitimately be called the inventor or at least one of the earliest vintners of modern Barolo. (2)
I could not find any documentation attesting the use of Nebbiolo in Grinzane, but writing about the estate of Pollenzo Staglieno confirms that the majority of the grapes grown there were in fact Nebbiolo and adds that wines made from this variety must age at least for four years before becoming enjoyable to the palate. (3) Pollenzo is in Bra, outside the area of modern Barolo production, but Staglieno shows appreciation for the grape and he may have employed it in Grinzane.


I started my research with the intention of making a simple post on Oudart, Juliette Colbert and Barolo, but in the end I could not find an answer to the question “Who invented Barolo?”.
Was it Staglieno? Maybe, though we cannot exclude the presence of someone else, unrecorded by history, making a dry red wine from Nebbiolo in the Langhe before him. Probably it is like trying to find the inventor of the méthode champenois: was he an english merchant, a monk from Limoux or what else? Impossible to say.
What we can say is that the XIX century was a very exciting period, one which really shaped the wine we drink today. Knowledge on how to make good wine was being passed all over Europe (and beyond), reaching the rolling hills of central Piedmont where people slowly started to improve their product by lengthening fermentations, giving more care to winery hygiene and choosing more suitable grape varieties. The disaster (oidium, phylloxera, peronospora) was behind the corner, but the seeds were being planted and the fruit is inside our glasses every day.

(1) Here a fantastic source on Staglieno. His presence in Grinzane is attested in a letter by the count of Cavour from September 22nd, 1836.

(2) Notice that today Grinzane is legally inside the Barolo wine area.

(3) The aforementioned resource on Staglieno at page 130 reports the extract, sourcing it from the Archivio di Stato di Torino (AST, Casa di S.M., M. 2591/1. Verduno 16 december 1839).


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Pubblicato da su 1 dicembre 2015 in Italian Wine, Wine history


Facts and opinions on Alsace Grand Cru system

This is another piece I wrote for my WSET studies. It is not that deep, but I hope it can be useful.

The Alsatian Grand Cru is a set of 51 AOCs providing for particular rules stricter than the basic Alsace AOC and applying to limited areas recognized as particularly suitable for viticulture and capable of producing superior wines.

The system started as a single AOC in 1975 with the concession of the status to the Schlossberg lieu-dit and was further expanded in 1983, 1992 and 2007. In 2011 each Grand Cru became a single AOC. The higher quality should be guaranteed on one part by the vineyards, ideally placed in favourable locations, both from a climatic and a geological point of view, and on another part from the more rigorous rules governing grape growing and winemaking: yields are normally lower, with a maximum limit of 55 hl/ha, the density of plantation is at least 4500 vines/ha and various dispositions control (between the others) canopy proportions, pruning limits and minimum sugar levels. Chaptalization and acidification are not permitted. Only four grapes (so called “noble”) are admitted in Alsace Grand Cru and they must compose 100% of the blend: Riesling, Gewurztraminer, Pinot Gris and Muscat. However there are exceptions (Altenberg de Bergheim, Kaefferkopf, Zotzenberg).

Though the system is widespread in the region, there has been a good amount of criticism towards it. Some growers and some cooperatives are accused of producing wines of mediocre quality, just cashing on the “Grand Cru” title, but the biggest issue lies in the appellations themselves. In a very interesting article, Olivier Humbrecht MW writes that “At the time of the classification process, many Alsace producers didn’t perhaps understood fully the concept of terroir as precisely as it was done for example in Burgundy.”. For Hugel, one of the most famous wineries to have boycotted the system, the Grand Crus are too much and their boundaries inadequate: in an interview featured in the June 2015 issue of Decanter Marc Hugel states that “If the classification had been honest it would have taken one minute, because everyone knew where the boundaries should have been.” He is echoed by his nephew Jean Frédéric, for whom “There should probably be 20 Grand Crus, and the rest should be Premier Crus.” Indeed some AOCs are really enormous: Schlossberg reaches 80 ha, but vineyards of 60 or 70 ha are not rare. Such a large area may host a very wide range of meso-climates, thus rendering the “single vineyard” title almost meaningless. Furthermore some plots are only of moderate quality and truly shine only when planted with one or two varieties. Of course wines of quality are produced, but much depends on the attitude of the single grower.

Maybe in an attempt to resolve these problems, a 2001 decree has been issued giving more power to the locale syndicates to improve quality of their respective lieu-dits (the so called “gestion locale”). The basic limits are fixed by law, but producers may decide for example to increase the minimum ripeness level, lower yields, increase vine density and even introduce new grape varieties for Grand Cru status (limited to the vineyard in question). Thus a Pinot Noir “Grand Cru” is theoretically possible.

Indeed the absence of this red variety from the Grand Cru varieties roster is puzzling: why such a noble grape, capable of producing the most fine wines of the world, should not considered “noble” in Alsace? The legislation is probably outdated, a legacy of a time before global warming had become an evident issue and when the optimum ripening level of Pinot Noir grapes was still below the Alsace region. A human factor may also be pointed out: for Marcel Orford Williams, buyer at The Wine Society, Alsatians lost the skills for top red winemaking due to the cyclical long wars that devastated the area. The low reputation of Alsace Pinot Noir when the regulation was outlined may have persuaded law-makers to exclude it from the “noble varieties”. However this situation persists, despite the fact that unofficially Pinot Noir Grand Cru wines already exist, they simply can’t be labelled as such: Albert Mann Pinot Noir Grand H or Paul Blanck Pinot Noir F are two examples, respectively from Hengst and Furstentum Grand Crus.

There is much need for a review of the rules in Alsace Grand Cru AOCs. The “gestion locale” seems to be a good tool to adapt the rules to the evolving reality of the world of wine, but since its inception criticism has not faded (and 14 years have already passed). Revision of the vineyards boundaries, the yields, the allowed varieties, maybe introduction of a multiple levels system: there is much for the Alsatians winemakers to consider. If they care.

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Pubblicato da su 28 agosto 2015 in French Wine



Leone De Castris, king of Salento markets shelves

I spent the last six days in the Salento peninsula, the heel of Italy’s boot, in Apulia region. I was on vacation, visiting relatives and the land of my ancestors. I more or less make a trip there once a year, but normally I content myself with the daily wines of my grandfather, rustic reds made of Negramaro and Malvasia Nera with a decent structure, but showing peculiar aromas of barnyard and countryside whom probably many modern tasters would not appreciate.
This time I decided to explore the big names, aiming at relatively expensive wines I would not normally consume in Japan. Nothing too fancy, bottles that you can find at your average supermarket, but above the basic stuff.
In Salento any grocery store will showcase its own selection of Leone De Castris wines. This company was founded in 1925, when Piero Francesco Leone married Anna Luisa Filippa De Castris and is located in Salice Salentino, north-west of Lecce. Today it produces a wealth of different wines, all in Apulia and especially in the Salento area. These wines are so ubiquitous in the shops of Lecce province, and so different in style, that I really don’t understand why I never saw them in Japan. I know that Nihon Liquor imports some, but my only encounter with Leone De Castris in Japan was when I ordered a terrible Locorotondo 2012, a very disappointing green, stalky, tart white wine and a complete waste of money. It seemed fair to give this company another chance and I was happy I did so: I could not taste every bottling, but the selection is very diverse and the price reasonable. Some of them could be valid alternatives to New World warm climate wines, others are more peculiar. I think that they should have more space on japanese market shelves

The official site is under construction, but I recommend this very informative producer profile on Diwine Taste.

Now on with the tasting notes.

2010 Leone de Castris Salice Salentino Riserva 89

Red, made from Negroamaro and Malvasia Nera.
Blackberry, black cherry, some spice and toast with earthy hints.
Good structure on the palate, medium plus body and tannin (which are quite ripe and do not stand in the way) and medium acidity.
The earthy character may not please everyone, but I find it interesting.

2010 Leone de Castris Donna Lisa Salento IGT 94

White, made from Malvasia Bianca.
Yummy and delicious. The medium gold colour announces intensity and ripeness and indeed the wine is plumpy: very ripe (almost jammy) apricot, peach, exotic fruits (mango) with hints of flowers, hazelnuts and honey after some time in the glass. Medium plus intensity both on the nose and on the palate, medium acidity and medium plus body. Good length and aftertaste of vanilla. It somehow reminded me of Huber Weissburgunder, but more fatty and tropical. Very nice in its genre, it could be a valid alternative also to warm climate Chardonnay.

2011 Leone de Castris il lemos Salento IGT  95

Red, Syrah 100%. 20 euros at the supermarket (in Apulia, where it is made), I think it could fetch the double in Japan.
This is a very soft and seducing style which somehow reminded me of Domaine Serene Rockblock Sono. Red cherry and red plum on the nose, with hints of cloves, toast and chocolate. Velvety in the mouth, full body with medium acid and medium plus ripe tannins. Long finish reminding again chocolate and vanilla.

This is undoubtly a New World style wine: technically perfect, it may be a little too “international”. Excellent nonetheless.

2014 Leone de Castris Messapia Salento IGT 87

White, made from Verdeca.
Aromas of jasmine, mint, green apple and pear and unripe pineapple. Medium plus acidity and medium body, some fresh herbal bitterness in the aftertaste.
Pleasant and fresh, not bland, it shows some personality and offers a set of enjoyable flavours.

2013 Leone de Castris Primitivo di Manduria Villa Santera 87

Red, from Primitivo.
Probably made from overripe grapes. It shows aromas of red plum jam, raisin and a bit of cinnamon and cacao.
In the mouth it has a perceivable sweetness, with medium plus body and medium acidity. Tannins are medium and very soft.
Sirupy wine, but it lacks some tannic structure. Very juicy.

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Pubblicato da su 20 agosto 2015 in Italian Wine


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Bordeaux en primeur – Nothing will change

I wrote the following assignment as an exercise for the WSET diploma. Researching the net I found that this is a fairly common essay, see this one by Mike Supple or this one by Joelle Thomson (who, by the way, was one of my teachers when I was studying WSET Level 3 in New Zealand).

To make it more readable I uploaded it on Issuu and embedded it on wordpress. It’s not perfect, but the feedback was fairly good.

EDIT: it seems that some browsers have problems loading the issuu plugin. I am posting the whole thing as HTML. For a complete version with notes and reference look here.


“En primeur” is an expression commonly used to indicate the sale of unfinished wine by the producers, particularly in Bordeaux. While the birth of modern Bordeaux en primeur took place in the 20th century, selling wine before it was bottled or stored in cask is a very old practice. We can find one of the earliest precursor of the system in the 17th century: François-Auguste de Pontac, owner of “The sign of Pontac Head” tavern in London, was the son of Arnaud III de Pontac, then owner of Chȃteau Haut-Brion, and served only the wine made by his father. Its quality and success made customers ask for future allocations, which the winery granted by mediation of the restaurant.

En primeur as it is conceived today began to slowly form since 1924, when Chȃteau Mouton-Rothschild started bottling its own wine, a work that had been traditionally left to the négociants. Particularly after the Second World War, with a smaller wine market, the producers often struggled to make ends meet: buying en primeur was a way to finance them. Négociants had much more strength in determining prices, save the first growths, and the producers, on their part, were happy to have some cash in advance. Until the end of the 1960s grapes were also often sold “sur souche” (before being picked), another prototype of en primeur sale, but this practice ended with the disastrous 1969 vintage, when the scarce harvest could not cover all the reserved allocations.

In 1969 bottling at the property became law for all the St. Émillion properties, followed by the classed growth of Medoc three years later. The start of the modern en primeur can be traced back to this period: the successful 1970 vintage attracted the attention of the American consumers, then in a very strong financial position, who bought large amounts of wines as futures, causing prices to rise (and then abruptly fall 3 years later).

The history of en primeur has since lived through periods of euphoria and depression, swelling and bursting: 1982 saw the beginning of a new speculative phase, a vintage today considered legendary but then despised by many critics, which made the fortune of those who invested in it. 1997 marked a new period of crisis, while frenzy came back in 2008 and 2009, only to be again replaced by another crunch in recent years.

How the en primeur system works

To talk about the en primeur system we should first briefly describe how Bordeaux trade works. The expression “La Place de Bordeaux” commonly refers to a three-tier system. This is composed as follows.

  • The producers, private or cooperatives, a total of circa 9500 growers.
  • The négociants, who buy the wines from the châteaux and sells them to the public. They also have a role in storing and ageing the wine, since only 50% of the region produce is châteaux bottled. There are around 400 négociants operating in Bordeaux, with about 100 of them involved in the trade of classed growths.
  • The courtiers, acting as brokers between the other two. Their tasks include discovering new producers and knowing where to find rare classified growths and vintages that the négociants may need. Registered courtiers are around 130, but no more than 20 of them work with the top estates .

The system originated in the seventeenth centuries when demand for wine from specific communes started to grow, especially in England, and it has shown to be convenient for the producers, saving them the hassle of selling and marketing the wine by themselves, as well as for the négociants and courtiers, who marks up the wine accordingly.

But not all the wines is traded through the négociant: merchants handle about 70% of the total Bordeaux production (5,7 million liters in 2009), while the rest is sold directly by the producers.

Their business is divided between bottled wines (vin livrables) and en primeur. The former is self-explaining, while the latter is a form of transaction where the wines are sold as “futures”, that is up to two years before finishing their making process and being bottled.

En primeur today is a very structured event: every April representatives of the trade and the media will swarm to Bordeaux and take part to the tastings organized by the Union des Grands Cru or by the single châteaux. They will taste the wines made from the last harvest, which will have barely completed malolactic fermentation and will still be quite tannic and acidic, and try to guess how the vintage is going to develop, if it will be great, mediocre or just good.

The producers normally will wait until May or June to establish their price (prix de sortie). This will be influenced by:

  • The reaction of the press. Higher marks mean higher prices. In the last decades the word of Robert Parker has been particularly important in the process, constituting an essential reference for both the trade and the public. In 2015 the famous critic has left the helm of en primeur tasting to Neal Martin. For Gary Boom, managing director at the London Merchant Bordeaux Index, this change will lead to lower prices, though there are different views on the issue. Not every château waits for judgements, for example Pontet-Canet has been used to reveal its prices well in advance of the en primeur week tastings.
  • Pricing of rival and neighbouring châteaux, for a very low price could be interpreted as a sign of vulnerability and lack of confidence.
  • Current market expectations, that is how fine Bordeaux wine market is expected to develop. En primeur market is highly speculative and while there have been calls to use the event for personal pleasure (buying good or rare wines to be enjoyed later at a lower price), this wine is still largely seen as an investment and expected to return revenues.
  • The foreign exchange market and particularly the strength of the euro.
  • Last but not least, the quality of the vintage as it is judged by the makers themselves.

Once the prices have been established, the négociants, through the courtiers (representing producers interest), will receive allocations from the châteaux. Allocation size will depend from many factors, like négociant reputation, financial solidity, history in the en primeur trade and the producer strategy. A négociant in a difficult year can renounce to his share, but this is not a simple decision, as the producer could reduce his future allocations. Only merchants based in Bordeaux can buy through this system.

A château may choose to release its wine in tranches, at different stages, regulating the price according to market reaction. This is particularly true for First Growths, while lesser growths will have each their own strategy and use this system to cope with the conditions of the market: Lynch-Bages did it with the 2013 vintage, when he went against its custom policy of selling almost all of its stock in one slice and released a very small first tranche at a competitive price.

As soon as the merchants have confirmed their allocations, they will offer the wines to their partners, both in France and in the rest of the World. After two years the finished wine will be delivered to the merchants and the customer will decide whether to take it or to store it at the négociant facilities (for an annual fee). If he takes it, he will have to pay for VAT, delivery and custom taxes where applicable.

En primeur does not involve all of Bordeaux producers: in 2005, out of nearly 10.000 growers only 430 sold en primeur, with the number further declining to 332 in 2008.

Also, en primeur is not a Bordeaux exclusive: similar futures sales are hold for Burgundy, Rhône and Port wine. The U.S. wine industry is considering the possibility of introducing the system, while some single wineries, like Harlan Estate, have already implemented it (selling directly to the consumers). It must be said that these “en primeurs” are less structured and organic than in Bordeaux and attract much less attention.

Advantages and disadvantages of en primeur

The en primeur system has been alive for decades because in the right conditions it repays very well all its participants.

Advantages for producers are easy to understand.

  • Cash flow. The main reason behind the birth of en primeur: being able to capitalize on a wine 2 years before its bottling is economically very important, even though the price is lower. This is especially true for lesser châteaux.
  • Efficient marketing. Having the world of wine trade and media coming to your doorstep every April is extremely convenient and saves time and money. Furthermore, the system is integrated with the Place of Bordeaux, meaning that the négociants will take care of marketing and sell the wines to consumers and merchants around the world.

On the other hand consumers and négociants can have the following benefits.

  • Lower prices. In an ideal world, prices of an en primeur wine would be lower than those of a bottled one, for its unfinished nature. This has been true in the past, but recent speculation has challenged this point.
  • Availability. Wines that are made in limited quantities could be impossible to find when released. Moreover, customers needing particular bottling format (magnums, jéroboam and so on) should seriously think about buying en primeur, since these will be very difficult to find at a later stage.
  • Cost spreading. Tax (VAT and customs where applicable) and shipping will be paid when the wine is delivered. For final consumers this could effectively spread the cost of purchase.

However the system works if all the ring of the chains benefit from it. Lately this has not been the case and en primeur has come under criticism.

Merchants and consumers interested in en primeur must consider the following risks.

  • Commercial risks in the chain of distribution. Though the consumer has already paid, his wine does not still exist. If one of the rings in the chain of production and distribution becomes unable to honour its contract (a négociant or producer going bankrupt for example), nothing will be delivered. Getting refund is difficult and could not be worth the time and pain involved. The transaction is not based on a physical object, but just on an intention to purchase the wine when it will be finally bottled, thus normal mechanisms of customer protection are not in place: a receipt does not prove ownership, for there is still nothing to be owned.
    Recently EU has stated that en primeur buyers do not even have the right to cancel their purchase and ask for their money back. Luckily some merchants offer “cooling off” periods to their customer, but length and conditions vary.
  • Unrepaid investment. Purchasing to resell later at a higher price is very common with en primeur wine, but in late years much money has been lost in the game: since 2005 vintage revenues have been low and unreasonably priced 2008 and 2009 vintages even led to losses, with prices at release lower than those en primeur. For consumers this means economic loss, for négociants unsold stock.
  • Problems in quality assessment. It is difficult to evaluate an unfinished wine and predict its evolution, but merchants and journalists are asked exactly to do that, while customers have to trust their judgement. There is much space for error, with initially praised vintages revealing lower in quality than expected and prices decreasing accordingly. Furthermore, en primeur samples may not accurately reflect the final wine: different barrels develops at different speeds and producers are eager to show the best they can offer, which at this point could still be far from the eventual blend. There has also been much rumor about a “Parker barrel”, an en primeur blend specifically produced to please the taste of Robert Parker and to get favourable scores. As it is, the system is subject to abuse.

Being a seller’s market, at least since the 1980s, producers are less subject to the downsides of en primeur in the short term: in a way Bordeaux châteaux form an oligopoly and as such they behave. However they must be aware of some disadvantages.

  • Loss of credibility and reputation. The producers cannot entirely be blamed for trying to capitalize on world thirst for fine wine, but their perceived complacency and arrogance are undermining their reputation: in the last campaign (2014 vintage) merchant have started to lose patience and Max Lalondrelle of Berry Bros & Rudd has warned unreasonably pricing producers that he would not offer their wines or steer possible purchaser towards more conveniently priced options. This could lead to weaker demand in future years.
  • Costs of la Place de Bordeaux. While having its advantages, the existence of a three-tier system increases costs and spreads revenues.
  • No control over distribution. Once the wine is sold to the négociants, châteaux cannot control where it is distributed and how much. This is an issue of the entire system of la Place but it applies to en primeur as well.

Alternatives to en primeur

Speculation has made en primeur wine more a commodity to be traded by professionals than a drink to be enjoyed by enthusiasts, but the last vintages, particularly the tough 2011-2014 campaigns, are questioning the effectiveness of the system, while the press and the trade are wondering about possible alternatives for selling fine Bordeaux.

Châteaux Latour and Châteaux d’Yquem have found their own way to cope with en primeur: the former has quit the system in 2012, stating its intention to release future vintages only when ready to drink, the latter has adopted a more flexible approach and makes the decision on a yearly basis, taking into consideration vintage quality and trading conditions. It must be noted that a producer needs to be in very good financial health for taking such a step, since it means renouncing to early cash. Furthermore, négociants may not be pleased by châteaux menacing the status quo, as happened with Millésima boycotting Châteaux Latour. While unorthodox, both Yquem and Latour policies do not question the role of La Place de Bordeaux, but Bordeaux châteaux could take inspiration from the Harlan Estate model: the Californian producer operates its own en primeur, but sells directly to the customer at 600$ at bottle, retaining all the earnings. This would of course pose a number of practical issues, since sale and marketing would have to be managed entirely by the producer, not an easy challenge for smaller estates.

A less radical change in the system could be more viable: Tim Atkin MW suggests postponing en primeur tasting by a year, which could allow for more reliable quality judgement. Tasting samples should also be verified by the Conseil Interprofessionel du Vin de Bordeaux (CIVB) to make them as near to the final blends as possible. Blind tasting could help eliminating subjection towards top châteaux. London International Vintners Exchange (Liv-ex) also identifies a problem in the allocation system, hoping for a less political way of distribution.


In time of crisis it is normal to question the suitability of a system and to ponder alternatives. After the poor 2011-2013 vintages performances, interest in en primeur has dwindled and last April campaign, while a step forward, has generally failed to wake investor’s interest.

That said, en primeur is unlikely to end anytime soon. The system has been under strain several times in the past: in 1973, during the oil crisis, in 1998, when a overpriced 1997 vintage led to another bubble burst, and in 2007, following the high prices of 2005 and 2006. And yet it has survived. Jancis Robinson, citing Edmund Penning-Roswell, stresses that the châteaux were already speculating in 1970s, offering prices unrelated to quality, production costs or the depth of consumer’s pockets. 40 years have passed and nothing has changed.

A major shock, implying négociants going bankrupt and tons of wine remaining unsold, could eventually lead to lower prices, giving en primeur back to the world of wine enthusiasts for a while. However the centuries-old charm of Bordeaux would likely hit once again, new merchants would rise and history would repeat once again. The cycle could be definitively broken only devoiding Bordeaux of its allure, but this would imply the rise of a similar en primeur system in another wine region, one capable of attracting the same attention by the trade and the press. At present none of the en primeurs taking place in the Rhone or in Burgundy has this strength, challengers are nowhere to be seen.

Surely the mechanism would at least benefit from some minor changes, in the allocation system or in the way and timing the tasting samples are presented: the wines are tasted too early and there is no guarantee that they will reflect the final blend. However self-regulation by the producers would be impossible to enforce and legal restraints, in such a litigious region, would lead to a “civil war” of legal actions. After all “the bordelais are greedy” and we can only trust the good faith of the single producers.

But in the end no one has to be part of this circus: we can watch stellar prices unfolding every year under our eyes, while sipping a premium Chilean wine or a relatively affordable Barolo or Super-Tuscan. In this golden age of wine, where good quality is widely available, alternatives are everywhere. I think we can survive.

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Pubblicato da su 2 agosto 2015 in French Wine